Courses

Each fall semester, the East Asia Institute offers four primary courses. However, students may replace primary courses with electives listed below. Please see the EAI Curriculum Rules for more information.

Syllabi for the below courses offered from April 2019 through March 2020 (all of the “primary courses” as well as a number of electives) can be viewed online.

For Fall 2019, the primary courses will remain the same. Electives for 2019 are listed below, but please note that the course listing is extremely tentative. Please check back for the final course listing at a later date.

Students who need more information about the courses offered should contact the admissions office (eai@tci.ac.jp).Academics

Primary Courses (Fall 2019)

JST 301 Japan, Asia, and the West (3 credits)

An overview of Japanese culture and society in its international context. The course will take a primarily historical approach from the origins of the Japanese polity to the 21st Century, with an emphasis on Japan’s long-term interaction with Korea, China, and Western countries. Building on this background, the students will read sociological, psychological, and economic studies of contemporary Japan. This course provides the knowledge and skills needed to take full advantage of the other courses in Japanese and East Asian art, religion, practical culture, and language. It should prove highly valuable to students with an interest in Christian mission or business in Japan and Asia. Students may also expect a basic introduction to China and Korea. Lastly the in-class portions of the course provides a context for the various field trips and guided experiences. JST 301 is geared for junior level students, but it may be taken with profit by students from the sophomore through the senior years.
Depending on the enrollment, the class will use lectures, seminar presentations, and tutorials. For one or two students, entirely tutorials. For three to six students, mostly seminar presentations. More than six students, a mix of lectures and seminar presentations.

FA 320 History of Japanese Arts and Aesthetics (3 credits)

In this course, we will examine the Japanese cultural influences as we survey the history of Japanese visual arts and aesthetics from a Christian perspective. This year we will concentrate on the theme Budhido which is the traditional view of life and death and aesthetics of Japanese. We will watch the film “Ikiru (To live)” directed by Akira Kurosawa and discuss about our theme. And we will read and discuss our text “Budhido: The soul of Japan”written by Inazo Nitobe. Then we will study the history of the images of Buddha; The Rinpa School Painting in Edo period; Tea Ceremony and Japanese Aesthetics; Tokyo National Museum. And you will experience the traditional Tea Ceremony at the Tea Room in the Faith and Culture Center of TCI. Japanese Ghibli animation and comics (Anime) are known around the world. Additionally, in the three classes, we will learn about Japanese animation—and Ghibli animated films, in particular—and Japanese comics under the guidance of Yasumi Tsujinaka, a specialist in this area. Students will consider how they may better understand the religious mind of modern Japan’s youth through analysis of Anime.

PHIL 370 Japanese Religion and Philosophy (3 credits)

This course surveys important themes and developments in the history of Japanese religion. It will provide an overview of Japanese religious history, from the earliest historical documents to the present, and consider how various religious traditions have impacted the social, political, and cultural lives of the Japanese people. The class will also examine major characteristics of various religions traditions and how they have shaped the landscape of Japan as it is now. One unique characteristic of this course is that it will be conducted as a bilingual seminar. Both Japanese and English speaking students will be present in this class. Though the instructor will give introductory lectures to each religious tradition, many classes will be devoted to the discussion of common readings and of the presentations of student groups. Class preparations and active participation constitute a major part of the student’s grade for the semester. The purpose of this class is to aid students in achieving a necessary familiarity with the religious history of Japan, taking into account the repeating themes of religious pluralism, as well as the interrelation between major religious traditions and new religious developments, including that of cults.

JPN 101-103 Elementary Japanese Language and Culture (3 credits)

The elementary, intermediate, and advanced courses help students to build a strong foundation in the Japanese language, aiming for the ultimate goal of being a true bridge person between Japan and their home countries. In order to be such a bridge person, the students should be able to use the Japanese language as their tool, being fluent in reading and writing as well. All four skills speaking, listening, writing, and reading will be covered.

Students will be assigned to the course below that best suits their level:

JPN 101 Elementary Japanese Language and Culture I

JPN 201 Intermediate Japanese Language and Culture I

JPN 301 Advanced Japanese Language and Culture I

Stacks Image 354Electives for 2018/2019

Below are the electives scheduled to be offered at TCU during the Spring, Fall and Winter 2018/2019. Please note that course offerings are subject to change in the event of unforeseen circumstances.

<Electives for Fall 2018>
Electives for fall are listed as 3-credit courses. However, students can also take them as 2-credit courses, which is the standard for full-time TCU students. For instance, students who need 3 or 4 credits in theology at their home university can take any two ST courses (if offered while the student is at TCU) for 2 credits each, making an ST course of 4 credits. Of course, the student could also take the two ST courses for 3 credits each, bringing the ST course total to 6 credits.
Please note that the following courses are offered as 2-credits/ 1-credit courses.
PSYS201 Psychology II (2 credits)
Japanese Extensive Reading and Listening I (2 credits)
JPN151/251  Mastering Kanji I (1 credit)

<Electives for Spring and Winter>
Electives for Winter and Spring terms are listed as 2-credit courses, which is the standard for full-time TCU students. However, with approval from TCU’s academic dean, students may take these courses as 3-credit courses. In such cases, the academic dean and course professor(s) will make up the additional credit from extra guided studies.

<Electives for Fall 2019>
As noted above, electives for fall 2019 has not been determined. Please note that the course listing below is extremely tentative and the final course listing will be available in late March to early April.

Electives for Fall 2018

BST102 New Testament Survey I (3 credits)

The New Testament is the collection of 27 documents of different kinds written by various people over a period of time in the 1st century C.E. in the eastern part of the Greco-Roman world. Although the New Testament forms the second part of the Christian scripture, it does not simply enumerate nor summarize what Christians believe or should believe like creeds and confessions of faith. Various authors wrote in reply to what they have experienced in the course of their Christian lives. It reflects their actual life based on the Christian faith, i.e. their cultures, various temptations and struggles of their faith. However, it consistently raises the question, “Who is Jesus?”, and the question is answered from various perspectives. It was crucial who one believes Jesus is. Moreover, what it meant for the 1st century Christians to live on the basis of Christian faith is reflected in each document of the New Testament. For those of us who live and willingly serve the Lord in the 21st century as Christians it is indispensable to grasp the message of each document of the New Testament. For the “survey 1” we will read through Pauline epistles in the chronological order. Reading through the New Testament is required for the course.

COM280 Intercultural Communication (3 credit)

The need to acquire the knowledge and skills in intercultural communication is growing in the globalized word. Developing the ability and competence in cross-cultural communication is not simply relevant but crucial today. This course aims to introduce the basic knowledge and skills necessary for developing healthy intercultural relationships. To archive this goal, this course will explore the fundamental concepts and variables in cross-cultural communication. In addition, students will learn cultural patterns that help students to objectify both their own and other cultural ways of communication in order to foster healthy intercultural relationships. The cultivation of positive attitudes towards different cultures is essential. The necessary components and basic skills for effective intercultural communication will be discussed. In this course, a special emphasis will be given to the intercultural communication in the Japanese context. This specific emphasis is intentional and it aims at helping students for their cultural adjustment in the Japanese culture and society.

ENG101 Academic Reading and Writing (3 credits)

Students will come to understand the connection between good writing and good thinking, and they will develop skills to become a “great rewriter.” In order to do this, they will learn the causes of bad writing and learn tangible techniques for good writing. Moreover, they will learn the basics of discourse: paragraphing, topic statements, thesis statements, and supporting information. They will mainly learn principles for writing with clarity, cohesion, emphasis, and coherence. Additional time will be spent learning to analyze texts, use evidence, question and engage sources, develop ideas, and structure arguments. Students will learn to summarize, paraphrase, quote, reference, and avoid plagiarism. Most of all, they will learn clear principles for applying the Golden Rule of Writing: Write as you would be written to.

SOC430 International Society and Japan (3 credits)

Based on mundane observations, non-Christian people seem to take it for granted almost subconsciously that their life-related sphere can be divided into purely empirical and purely philosophical sub-components in a mutually exclusive manner. To them, international issues fall under the former purely empirical, or non-philosophical one. Is this really the case? Issues surrounding international society and Japan can be loosely categorized into two kinds: empirical ones and conceptual ones. This course covers both of these two perspectives. More specifically, the issue of Japan’s material richness and spiritual poverty is the starting point of this course. The globally observed “North-South Problem” (income disparity between the rich and the poor regions of the world) is also a focus of this course, along with the global environmental issue. Along with addressing these, validity of economics as public philosophy is addressed in this course, from the perspective of “public philosophy”. In brief, the aim of this course is to provide the student with a Christian view on the basic functioning of the international society and the current/potential roles of Japan. While international political economy serves as the main guiding discipline, reference is also made to relevant scriptural texts as appropriate, with a view to synthesizing “secular” and “biblical” insights into international issues surrounding Japan.

HIS320 Church History I: Early Church to the Pre-Reformation (3 credits)

This course is designed to introduce the student to the history of Christianity from Antiquity to the late Middle Ages. Its primary aim is to acquaint the student with the historical and theological developments of key figures, movements, and doctrines of the period. Students will learn about major problems faced by the church during this time, such as Gnosticism and Arianism, and influential people, such as Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. Another goal is the development of a critical historical perspective on the Christian church and its applications to the practicalities of the modern Christian church and the Christian life. The course will proceed chronologically with a focus on eastern and western Christianity, but also with recognition of the global spread of Christianity.

THEO301 Systematic Theology II: Christ (3 credits)

The third in a sequence of four courses in Christian theology, and a continuation of Systematic Theology I. The main part of the course will focus on Christ – his person, work, and offices. This includes a discussion of Christ’s incarnation, life, death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension. The course begins with the doctrines of sin and covenant, and concludes with the application of the work of Christ in the gift of the Holy Spirit and faith. The details of soteriology (justification and sanctification) will be discussed in Systematic Theology III.

There is much common ground on these topics with the Lutheran, Reformed/Calvinist, and Wesleyan/Arminian theological traditions that inform much of modern evangelicalism. Yet evangelicals even within these traditions debate many issues. The course explores the coherence and interrelation of doctrinal topics, their roots in biblical sources, and their expression and development within the wider church. The course is focused specifically on doctrine and not on practice or ethics, but with the assumption that the knowledge of God and oneself is integral to Christian living.

PSYS201 Psychology II (2 credits)

The purpose of this class is to approach to the psychopathological problems by the knowledges and appreciation from Psychology 1. The topics are as follows, anger and DV, addiction of drug and alcoholic, drawal, suicide and depression, sexual identity disorder, eating disorder, net society and isolation, developmental disorder, and hesrt thory. Especially, we focus the essential reasons of these disorders from the Bible to understand further the mystery of heart and souls of human being for the students’ missionary works.

JPN151/251 Mastering Kanji  (1 credit)

Beyond the stage of true beginner, no two speakers of Japanese as a second language have the same experience with, or exposure to, spoken and written Japanese. This is especially true, it seems, for Japanese language learners’ exposure to Kanji. Therefore, this course is designed to account for the vast range of abilities that exists among Japanese learners. We will adopt an approach that will not only accommodate but also challenge every participant, whether a complete beginner or an advanced learner of the Japanese language. In the weekly sessions, the class members will acquire and hone strategies for learning and remembering Kanji; learn how to use analog and digital tools for Kanji acquisition; set personal and group goals (short-term and long-term); check and report on progress; and encourage one another in their efforts to achieve their goals.

Japanese Extensive Reading and Listening I (2 credits)

This course aims to help students acquire and effectively use Japanese through Extensive Reading and Listening. A large amount of Japanese input through Extensive Reading and Listening makes students’ output in speaking and writing smoother and more fluent. In order for the students to be successful at Extensive Reading and Listening, they are encouraged to keep the following four rules: 1. Start with simple and easy books. 2. Read without using a dictionary. 3. Skip unknown words. 4. When stuck, or when a book becomes uninteresting, find another book.
*Prerequisite: At least one semester (or the equivalent) of Japanese study, with the ability to read Hiragana.

Electives for Winter 2019

BST220 The Pentateuch (2 credits)

The first five books of the Old Testament are crucial in many senses. In terms of content, they present all the major Biblical themes: creation and fall, covenant and election, justification by faith, mission, the giving of the Law, sin and atonement, the love commandment, etc. These themes are related through various events beginning with the creation through the death of Moses. In this course, we will focus on various themes related to sin and atonement, which are discussed in what is presumably the most unreadable portion of the Bible, namely, Leviticus. Leviticus constitutes the central part of the Sinai covenant, so presumably contains the deepest part of God’s will that has been unfolded since the giving of the ten commandments. We will review various approaches to the Law, and explore the most suitable and reasonable approach to it. At the same time we will always pay attention to the relevance of the given theme to today’s believers as well as to the rest of the Pentateuch and Old Testament.

BST340 The Writings (2 credits)

This course will introduce students to the theological, literary, and historical significance of the Writings (Ketuvim, or Hagiographa)—comprising Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and I and II Chronicles—the third major canonical division of the Old Testament as it was known and read in early Jewish and Christian communities. In readings, lectures, discussions, and presentations, we will give close attention to the following: problems related to the authorship, composition, transmission, translation, and canonization of these books; distinctive techniques and features of biblical poetry; the history of reception and interpretation of these books within early Jewish and Christian communities; the Writings in Jewish and Christian liturgy; assumptions, aims, methods, and tools of various exegetical approaches to entire books and to sub-genres within each book; similarities and differences among various traditional and modern approaches to the Writings; relationships among the Torah, Prophets, and Writings; and possible relationships among biblical and non-biblical texts.

ENG201 Critical Research and Writing (2 credits)

In this course, you will learn and practice to read, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction sources and to present the results of you analyses in clear, organized, and carefully documented research papers. You will do this through honing your abilities to master grammar, logic, and rhetoric. Grammar refers to more than the structure of language. It concerns the facts of a given subject. Thus, mastering grammar refers to your ability to move towards mastery of a given subject or topic. Logic is not just the science of reasoning. It also refers to your ability to analyze, synthesize, and subsume the facts (and grammar) through your powers of reasoning. And rhetoric refers to your ability to communicate these subsumed facts with clarity, style, and grace.

EDU110 Christian Education (2 credits)

Christian education has various meanings. However, it is foundational to the expression of your faith and relates deeply to your own faith formation as well as others. One relates to it not only in his or her current status as a college student in a Christian institution, but also in the past and future as a person of faith. Also, learning history helps one to look back at his or her roots and to decide his or her future course. This class observes how people, theories, and movements influenced the formation of Christian education. We will learn the actual practices of Christian education from ancient times and the Middles Ages, from the Renaissance to the Reformation, and all the way to modern times and the 20th century. On this basis, we will ponder our own approaches to Christian education for the present and future. Students will investigate specific approaches to Christian education through various projects. Though we will learn mostly the history of Christian Education in the West, we will take our various cultural backgrounds into consideration and construct flexible applications.

HIS321 Church History II: Reformation to the Present (2 credits)

This course is designed to introduce the student to a history of Christianity from the Reformation to the Present. Its primary aim is to acquaint the student with the historical and theological developments of key figures, movements, and teachings of the period. Another goal is to develop a critical historical perspective on the Christian church and its applications to the practicalities of the modern global Christian church and the contemporary Christian life. The important aspect of the course is its focus on the relationship between the phenomenon of Christianity and various modernizing forces. The modern Christianity opposes, welcomes, imitates, and rejects modernity all at the same time. By examining the spirit of modernity manifesting in various time periods and events, the nature of modern Christianity becomes perspicuous.

HIS480 Japanese Church History (2credits)

We will survey Japanese church history, including the early Roman Catholic movement from 1549 to 1859, and Protestantism in Japan from 1859 to 2000.

HIS421 History and Theology of the Reformation and Evangelicalism (2 credits)

This course seeks to familiarize students with two major movements in church history: the Reformation and Evangelicalism. In the first half of the course, we will examine the origins and development of Protestantism. Attention will be given to those aspects of Protestantism from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries which constitute important background to the rise of Evangelicalism. Since Evangelicalism emerged in the midst of the Enlightenment, particular attention will be given to the nature of the Enlightenment and ways in which Evangelicalism either resisted or adapted to it. The second half of the course examines the origins of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth century, its subsequent diversification with special attention to Methodism and the Holiness Movement, and the challenge presented by Liberalism leading to the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy. The course ends with a consideration of recent and global trends in Evangelicalism.

ICM320 Theology of Contextualization (2 credits)

‘Theology of Contextualization’ is a relatively new vocabulary in the province of evangelical theology. The term ‘theology of indigenization’ was used during the 1970s in its place. As stated by a British Christian scholar Patrick Sookhdeo, “contextualization may be understood as the expression of the gospel through appropriate forms within the culture of its recipients.” Stating differently, it may be said that contextualization attempts to differentiate between the context of the gospel and the forms which express it. The gospel comes from above and is universal and complete. However culture is relative and changing. Therefore the process of contextualization must recognize that various cultures enclose factors which resist or counter the gospel. Contextualization again therefore must be committed to the gospel controlling its forms of expression. During this team-teaching class, the following questions will to be given serious consideration:(1) How do we study and value culture? (2) Who should take the initiative of doing the contextualizing? (3) What values should be used to shape contextualization? (4) How should the process of contextualization need to make certain that the work does not go astray? (5) What is to be the connection of contextualization with Christian history and the upholding of historic truths and traditions?

JPN152/252 Mastering Kanji (1 credit)

Beyond the stage of true beginner, no two speakers of Japanese as a second language have the same experience with, or exposure to, spoken and written Japanese. This is especially true, it seems, for Japanese language learners’ exposure to Kanji. Therefore, this course is designed to account for the vast range of abilities that exists among Japanese learners. We will adopt an approach that will not only accommodate but also challenge every participant, whether a complete beginner or an advanced learner of the Japanese language. In the weekly sessions, the class members will acquire and hone strategies for learning and remembering Kanji; learn how to use analog and digital tools for Kanji acquisition; set personal and group goals (short-term and long-term); check and report on progress; and encourage one another in their efforts to achieve their goals.

Japanese Extensive Reading and Listening II (2 credits)

This course aims to help students acquire and effectively use Japanese through Extensive Reading and Listening. A large amount of Japanese input through Extensive Reading and Listening makes students’ output in speaking and writing smoother and more fluent. In order for the students to be successful at Extensive Reading and Listening, they are encouraged to keep the following four rules: 1. Start with simple and easy books. 2. Read without using a dictionary. 3. Skip unknown words. 4. When stuck, or when a book becomes uninteresting, find another book.
*Prerequisite: At least one semester (or the equivalent) of Japanese study, with the ability to read Hiragana.

Electives for Fall 2019

BST101 Old Testament Survey (3 credits)

The aim of this course is for students to become more competent interpreters and communicators of the Old Testament by learning to: (1) Articulate the over-arching narrative of the Old Testament; (2) Identify and explain the purpose and message of Old Testament books and major canonical divisions in their literary and historical contexts; (3) Identify and critically assess some of central issues and debates concerning the Old Testament from ancient to modern times; (4) Articulate certain hermeneutical issues surrounding the interpretation and proclamation of the Old Testament as God’s word; (5) Formulate questions and practice approaches to solutions that will inform and stimulate a lifetime of study of the Old Testament.

BST260 The Gospels (2 credits)

This course provides an introduction to the study of the four canonical gospels and the study of Jesus. The aim of this course is to lay a firm foundation for the lifelong study of and engagement with the four canonical gospels that are at the heart of Christian faith. Students are expected to appreciate each gospel in its own terms, i.e. to have a clear grasp of the distinctive features of each gospel. For this purpose, we shall learn some key analytical methods developed in modern New Testament scholarship. Both the strengths and the limitations of each method will be evaluated in the course of our discussions. We shall spend more time on the gospel of Mark and the gospel of John in order better to understand the relationship between the Synoptic gospels and the fourth gospel. Subsequently, we shall briefly review the ongoing scholarly investigation called “the quest for the historical Jesus”. We shall evaluate some scholarly views on the historical Jesus in the light of the testimonies of the four canonical gospels.

COM280 Intercultural Communication (3 credits)

The need to acquire the knowledge and skills in intercultural communication is growing in the globalized word. Developing the ability and competence in cross-cultural communication is not simply relevant but crucial today. This course aims to introduce the basic knowledge and skills necessary for developing healthy intercultural relationships. To archive this goal, this course will explore the fundamental concepts and variables in cross-cultural communication. In addition, students will learn cultural patterns that help students to objectify both their own and other cultural ways of communication in order to foster healthy intercultural relationships. The cultivation of positive attitudes towards different cultures is essential. The necessary components and basic skills for effective intercultural communication will be discussed. In this course, a special emphasis will be given to the intercultural communication in the Japanese context. This specific emphasis is intentional and it aims at helping students for their cultural adjustment in the Japanese culture and society.

ICM420 Global Christianity (3 credits)

The numerical bulk of Christian population has shifted from Europe and North America to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This numerical shift has been an important emerging force to refocus the global nature of the Christian faith. This course aims to study the global nature of the Christian faith and to reflect upon the implications for theologizing and mission practice in the era of the global church.
This course is offered in conjunction with the World Missions Lectureship (WML). Therefore, it is required students to attend all the WML lectures. Through the WML, students will explore pressing issues in the current situation of the world evangelization. Student will write “reflection papers” that (1) summarize the contents and main points, (2) examine the significance of each lecture, and (3) reflect upon the WML contents in relation to the current state of the global church and the missiological context of each student.

ICM450 Christian Mission and Church Movements (3 credits)

This course introduces studies in the transmission of faith from the historical and missiological points of view, thereby discussing the present and future of missions. Students will study various aspects of Christian mission in terms of the transmission of Christian faith, Africa’s place in Christian history, and the missionary movements of the Old and the New. Using the textbook of Andrew Walls, we will discuss what kind of theological insights and missiological understandings there were, the relations of Church renewal and bold efforts toward mission, mission structures they adopted, the roles of the key mission leaders, and finally, the influences of one mission movement to another movement. This course is not lecture-centered, rather an interactive setting where students carefully read the assigned chapters in the textbook and present them in the first part of each class. Students will learn subjects in-depth by evaluating their presentations with one another and by the advice and comments from the instructor.

LING301 Introduction to Linguistics (3 credits)

In this course, we will familiarize ourselves with practical knowledge of linguistics and apply it to teaching English. We will do this using the following approach. (1) Read assigned texts and watch assigned videos each week. (2) Discuss readings and videos with classmates in class. (3) Give and hear mini presentations on an assigned text/linguistic discipline each week. (4) Take quizzes on the assigned readings. 5) Prepare a Final Project/Presentation on one Linguistics/Language Teaching discipline. 5) Prepare a Lesson Plan or Field Report of a Language class*.

THEO101 Survey of Christian Doctrine (3credits)

This course serves two main purposes. First, it provides a general survey of basic Christian doctrine from a Protestant, Evangelical perspective. Second, it provides a foundation for the three-course sequence in Systematic Theology. The Christian Doctrine course describes the range of options in contemporary Evangelicalism and shows their context through a quick and very rough survey of Christian theology from the earliest Christian Fathers to the present. Thus, this course should provide the student with a rather extensive data-base of theological doctrines, issues (such as infant vs. adult baptism), and vocabulary. It is important to note what this class does not do. It does not explore what makes Christian doctrine into a coherent whole, nor does it discuss how a theological system is put together, nor does it consider in depth how to argue for a particular theological position, nor does it explore extensively the difference between the various kinds of theological systems, whether Evangelical—such as the Lutheran, Anabaptist, Reformed, Wesleyan, Pentecostal, and Dispensationalist options—or non-Evangelical, such as 19th century Liberalism, Liberation Theology, and the like. Those issues will be taken up in the three Systematic Theology courses.

THEO401 Systematic Theology III: Holy Spirit (3 credits)

The concluding course in a sequence of four: Overview of Christian Doctrine, ST I, ST II, and ST III. The Holy Spirit was introduced in ST I when discussing the Trinity. Our study was then given more depth through its connections with Christology in ST II. This final course discusses a selection of topics which Christian theologians have, traditionally, closely associated with the work of the Holy Spirit. As a transition from the previous course, ST III begins with Soteriology (i.e., justification, sanctification, regeneration, the order of salvation, sin, grace, etc.). Then it will move to the Christian Life (man as a “thou,” as at once saint and sinner, whether or not perfectible in this life, relation to the State, war, and pacifism, etc.). This will be followed by those topics that many lay people think of first when they hear mention of the Holy Spirit: Pneumatology (glossolalia, Baptism “in” the Spirit, Baptism “with” the Spirit, Entire Sanctification, Spirit-Baptism, Second Blessing, Role of the Spirit in other religions, in divine providence, etc.). The course proceeds to Ecclesiology (universal and local church, visible and invisible church, metaphors describing the church, relation to salvation, leadership, governance, etc.) and the Sacraments (how many, infant vs believer’s baptism, whether necessary for salvation, ordinance and/or sacrament, Lord’s supper, etc.). It will conclude with Eschatology (life after death, the “end” of history, the return of Christ, rapture, problems with the delay of the Parousia, millennialism, judgment, the final kingdom, etc.).

Japanese Extensive Reading and Listening (2 credits)

This course aims to help students acquire and effectively use Japanese through Extensive Reading and Listening. A large amount of Japanese input through Extensive Reading and Listening makes students’ output in speaking and writing smoother and more fluent. In order for the students to be successful at Extensive Reading and Listening, they are encouraged to keep the following four rules: 1. Start with simple and easy books. 2. Read without using a dictionary. 3. Skip unknown words. 4. When stuck, or when a book becomes uninteresting, find another book.
*Prerequisite: At least one semester (or the equivalent) of Japanese study, with the ability to read Hiragana.

Mastering Kanji (1 credit)

Beyond the stage of true beginner, no two speakers of Japanese as a second language have the same experience with, or exposure to, spoken and written Japanese. This is especially true, it seems, for Japanese language learners’ exposure to Kanji. Therefore, this course is designed to account for the vast range of abilities that exists among Japanese learners. We will adopt an approach that will not only accommodate but also challenge every participant, whether a complete beginner or an advanced learner of the Japanese language. In the weekly sessions, the class members will acquire and hone strategies for learning and remembering Kanji; learn how to use analog and digital tools for Kanji acquisition; set personal and group goals (short-term and long-term); check and report on progress; and encourage one another in their efforts to achieve their goals.